DEFINITIONS AND EXAMPLES PRESENTED IN THE DICTIONARY

ACCOUNTABLE (adj)

Required or expected to justify actions or decisions; responsible.

  • When nobody can be held accountable for decisions like this, democracy is dead.

Able to be explained or understood.

  • He incorporated the changes, leaving aside variations accountable as printer’s errors.

ACCOUNTABILITY (n) 

The fact or condition of being accountable; responsibility.

  • Lack of accountability has corroded public respect for business and political leaders.

ACCLAIM (n) 

Enthusiastic and public praise.

  • She has won acclaim for her commitment to democracy.

ACCLAIM (v) 

Praise enthusiastically and publicly.

  • The conference was acclaimed as a considerable success.

ACCLAMATION (n) 

Loud and enthusiastic approval.

  • During the introductions I mentioned that information science is integral to each of the sciences represented and received loud acclamation.

Of election, agreement, etc. by overwhelming vocal approval and without ballot.

  • The First Chamber approved ratification of the Treaty by acclamation.

ALBEIT (adv)

Though.

  • Negotiation and mediation seems to be solving the Irish question albeit very slowly.

ALLOCATE  (v) 

Distribute (resources or duties) for a particular purpose.

  • In past years we didn’t allocate enough funds to infrastructure maintenance.

ALLOCATION (n) 

The action or process of allocating or sharing out something.

  • Value for money is associated with rational allocation of existing or given resources.

An amount of a resource assigned to a particular recipient.

  • The Ministry spent more than its annual allocation of funds.

ECHO (v) 

Be repeated (of a sound) or reverberate after the original sound has stopped .

  • The sounds of fierce combat echo throughout the Combat Arena.

Resound (of a place) with or reflect back a sound.

  • The twisty streets of Monaco echoed with the scream of F1 engines today as the 2005 grand prix weekend got under way.

Repeat (someone’s words or opinions), typically to express agreement.

  • Candidates from all parties are echoing similar rhetoric.

Be reminiscent (of an object or event) of or have shared characteristics with.

  • If a historical parallel is necessary the successes of the coalition echo some of the strengths of the civil rights movement in the US in the 1960s.

Send a copy of (an input signal or character) back to its source or to a screen for display.

  • For security reasons, the password will not be echoed to the screen.

ECHO (n) 

A sound or sounds caused by the reflection of sound waves from a surface back to the listener.

  • In the distance, she could hear the faint echo of footsteps.

The repetition in structure and content of one speaker’s utterance by another.

  • Echoes and repetitions do not necessarily imply non-differentiation of subjectivity.

A close parallel to an idea, feeling, or event.

  • In Spain and Greece early 2002 gave the lie to the persistent rumours that the movement could not survive the echoes of 11 September in the most dramatic way.

A characteristic that is suggestive of something else.

  • There are echoes of those ‘protect and survive leaflets’ issued ‘in the event of nuclear disaster’ in the 70s.

EMBARK  (v) 

Go on board a ship or aircraft.

  • Tens of thousands of refugees embarked for the United States.

Put or take on board a ship or aircraft.

  • The passengers were ready to be embarked.

Begin a course of action.

  • She embarked on a new career.

ENHANCE (v) 

Intensify, increase, or further improve the quality, value, or extent of.

  • Improving democracy is about enhancing the opportunities for local communities to make their own decisions.

ENHANCEMENT (n) 

An increase or improvement in quality, value, or extent.

  • This programme of enhancements will improve daily experience of passengers and encourage more people to use the railway.

FALL SHORT (v) 

Fail to reach its target.

  • An Iraqi surface-to-surface missile that was being fired at our troops fell short of its target.

Be deficient or inadequate.

  • The total vote fell short of the required two-thirds majority.

FORGE (v) 

Make or shape (a metal object) by heating it in a fire or furnace and hammering it.

  • She taught me to forge iron bells out of nails hammered into the shape of feathers.

Create (something) strong, enduring, or successful.

  • These factors have helped forge a strong and enduring bond of good will and friendship between our two countries.

Produce a fraudulent copy or imitation of (a document, signature, banknote, or work of art).

  • The signatures were forged by the defendant, who also signed the documents as having witnessed the signatures.

FORGERY (n) 

The action of forging a copy or imitation of a document, signature, banknote, or work of art.

  • There is no question but that these actions were a blatant breach of trust that was accomplished by forgery and attempted to be justified by fraud.

A forged document, signature, banknote, or work of art.

  • As part of the new searches, immigration officers will pore over documents, looking for forgeries of British and other national passports.

GEAR (v) 

Design or adjust the gears in a machine to give a specified speed or power output.

  • The transmission is geared for power, economy and smooth transition, and is designed to withstand tough working conditions.

Phrases

Gear up

Equip or prepare oneself.

  • An official says that the airport is well geared up for the situation. 

GEAR (n) 

A toothed wheel that works with others to alter the relation between the speed of a driving mechanism (such as the engine of a vehicle) and the speed of the driven parts (the wheels).

  • The team relied purely on programming and built a simple robot that used wheels rather than gears for its movement.

A particular setting of engaged gears.

  • In the auto-shift mode the system chooses the most logical gear for engine speed and fuel economy at any time.

Used in reference to the level of effort or intensity expended in an activity or undertaking.

  • When the United States entered World War II, the country had to move quickly into high gear.

Equipment or apparatus that is used for a particular purpose.

  • Many of these workers are working in hazardous environmental conditions without face masks, without proper gear.

Possessions and clothes.

  • It was a four-day trip, each man carrying his own rations, sleeping bag, clothing and personal gear.

Phrases 

Change (or switch or shift) gear

Adopt a different approach to a situation or task.

  • From February 1942, British air strategy changed gear.

To be/ go in/ into high gear

To be in a state of intense or maximum activity.

  • Litigation by political rivals and civil rights groups went into high gear against Republicans who controlled the mapmaking after winning legislative majorities in 2010.

HELM (n) 

A tiller or wheel for steering a ship or boat.

  • The Coast Guard allowed Sea Scouts with the rank of quartermaster to take the helm of the small boat during recovery operations.

A position of leadership.

  • The chairman is to step down after four years at the helm.

HELM (v) 

Steer (a boat or ship).

  • Five boats were helmed and crewed by members of the club.

Manage (an organization).

  • The ethically challenged cabinet-minister-cum-lobbyist now outrageously helms the Royal Canadian Mint.

LET ALONE 

Used to indicate that something is far less likely or suitable than something else already mentioned.

  • He was incapable of leading a bowling team, let alone a country.

MERIT (n) 

The quality of being particularly good or worthy, especially so as to deserve praise or reward.

  • In its structure the ruling elite reflected a world of order and hierarchy in which promotion and status were rewarded on merit.

A good feature or point.

  • The relative merits of both approaches have to be considered.

A pass grade in an examination denoting above-average performance.

  • University admissions requirements will vary from institution to institution, but are likely to expect either a merit or a distinction grade.

The intrinsic rights and wrongs of a case, outside of any other considerations.

  • During the proceedings on the merits, negotiations aimed at securing a friendly settlement may be conducted.

MERITOCRACY (n) 

Government or the holding of power by people selected according to merit.

  • Many liberal democracies, Britain included, justify wide disparities in the income levels of the rich and poor in terms of a doctrine of meritocracy.

A society governed by people selected according to merit.

  • Britain is a meritocracy, and everyone with skill and imagination may aspire to reach the highest level.

A ruling or influential class of educated or able people.

  • The founder of the National Outdoor Leadership School, proposed a meritocracy, giving priority to those best educated in wilderness skills.

OVERHAUL (n) 

A thorough examination of machinery or a system, with repairs or changes made if necessary.

  • If Indonesia wants to have an internationally competitive workforce, a major overhaul of its educational system is only the first step in a long process that lies ahead.

OVERHAUL (v) 

Take apart (a piece of machinery or equipment) in order to examine it and repair it if necessary.

  • Around 250 jobs in the division, which maintains, repairs and overhauls gas turbines, are being cut as part of a rationalisation plan.

Analyse and improve (a system).

  • He has more to do to overhaul the welfare system and public services in this country.

Overtake (someone), especially in a sporting event.

  • They remain the only county with a mathematical chance, albeit wafer-thin, of overhauling the leaders.

PREMISE (n) (British premiss)

A previous statement or proposition from which another is inferred or follows as a conclusion.

  • A valid inference is one where the conclusion follows from the premiss.

An assertion or proposition which forms the basis for a work or theory.

  • The fundamental premise of the report is that violence is both predictable and preventable.

PREMISES (plural n) 

A house or building, together with its land and outbuildings, occupied by a business or considered in an official context.

  • The company has moved to new premises.

PRECEDENT (n) 

An earlier event or action that is regarded as an example or guide to be considered in subsequent similar circumstances.

  • There are substantial precedents for using interactive media in training.

A previous case or legal decision that may be or (binding precedent) must be followed in subsequent similar cases.

  • The court should never view a foreign legal decision as a precedent in any way.

PRECEDENT (adj

Preceding in time, order, or importance.

  • His first and main ground is that the Inspector had no basis for his conclusion on the precedent effect.

PRECEDENCE (n) 

The condition of being considered more important than someone or something else; priority in importance, order, or rank.

  • His desire for power soon took precedence over any other consideration.

The order to be ceremonially observed by people of different rank, according to an acknowledged or legally determined system.

  • The order of precedence among legal heirs is defined by the degree of proximity of kinship.

PRECEDE (v) 

Come before (something) in time.

  • Elections are won and lost not in the four weeks of campaigning but in the long battle of ideas that precedes them.

Come before in order or position.

  • In personal interactions, social bonding typically precedes business matters or requests for help.

Go in front or ahead of.

  • He let her precede him through the gate.

Preface or introduce something with.

  • He preceded the book with a collection of poems.

UNPRECEDENTED (adj

Never done or known before.

  • The government took the unprecedented step of releasing confidential correspondence.

RUBBER-STAMP (v) 

Approve automatically without proper consideration.

  • Parliament merely rubber-stamped the decisions of the party.

SCRUTINY (n) 

Critical observation or examination.

  • Every aspect of local government was placed under scrutiny.

SCRUTINIZE (v) 

Examine or inspect closely and thoroughly.

  • All submitted data were carefully scrutinized and checked for completeness.

SUBMIT (v) 

Accept or yield to a superior force or to the authority or will of another person.

  • The original settlers were forced to submit to Bulgarian rule.

Agree to refer a matter to a third party for decision or adjudication.

  • The United States refused to submit to arbitration.

Subject to a particular process, treatment, or condition.

  • Because it did not involve human subjects, the study was not submitted to ethical scrutiny.

Consent to undergo a certain treatment.

  • Few men have so far submitted themselves to the treatment.

Present (a proposal, application, or other document) to a person or body for consideration or judgement.

  • The panel’s report was submitted to a parliamentary committee.

Suggest; argue (especially in judicial contexts).

  • He submitted that such measures were justified.

SUBMISSION (n) 

The action of accepting or yielding to a superior force or to the will or authority of another person.

  • Ever since, Indigenous Peoples have been forced into submission, if not obliteration, in the name of civilization and progress all over the globe.

The action of presenting a proposal, application, or other document for consideration or judgement.

  • Reports should be prepared for submission at partners’ meetings.

A proposal, application, or other document presented for consideration or judgement.

  • The respondents made detailed written submissions about these documents.

A proposition or argument presented by counsel to a judge or jury.

  • The judge halted the trial at the end of the prosecution’s submissions.

VISION (n) 

The faculty or state of being able to see.

  • Relaxation is one of the treatments for defective vision.

The images seen on a television screen.

  • The box converts the digital signal into sound and vision on an ordinary TV. 

The ability to think about or plan the future with imagination or wisdom.

  • Companies with the right vision can begin planning their future activities along these lines.

A mental image of what the future will or could be like.

  • Their efforts for educational advancement lack clear perception of the present and a flawed vision of the future.

An experience of seeing someone or something in a dream or trance, or as a supernatural apparition.

  • The idea came to him in a vision.

A person or sight of unusual beauty.

  • It’s a delicate and yet demanding film, one that will reward the patient viewer with visions of beauty and despair.

VISIONARY (adj)

Thinking about or planning the future with imagination or wisdom.

  • The awards highlight projects that go beyond technical solutions to consider process, human behavior, and visionary city planning.

Relating to or having the ability to see visions in a dream or trance, or as a supernatural apparition.

  • The film incorporates graphic dream sequences and visionary effects.

VISIONARY (n) 

A person with original ideas about what the future will or could be like.

  • He is a visionary keen on policy-making.

EXAMPLES PRESENTED IN THE UP-TO-DATE AUTHENTIC CONTEXT

  • In December 1968, to worldwide acclaim for Nasa, Apollo 8 successfully circled the moon 10 times before returning to Earth.
  • The Disney star was acclaimed for his charitable efforts throughout his short life.
  • Delaying the formal acclamation of the new monarch by parliament is a strange decision indeed.
  • He promised a compromise on the budget that passed the Senate by acclamation in mid-December and then withdrew his support.
  • The U.S. embarked on a “maximum pressure” campaign against Iran, including unprecedented economic sanctions. 
  • A newspaper’s expansive layout actively engages our brains to focus and allocate the time necessary to prioritize information.
  • The Barnett formula is used to share funds across the UK with allocations for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
  • Images from Saturday showed police in riot gear pushing crowds from the mayor’s office in the city center. 
  • The website is not geared up for use by students with visual impairments.
  • The social network will submit to new restrictions on how it operates and a modified corporate structure to ensure executives are more accountable for users’ privacy.
  • Even though the government indefinitely suspended the legislation, demonstrators are still demanding greater democracy and government accountability.
  • Meanwhile, Google’s parent company, Alphabet, the other major target of government scrutiny on both sides of the Atlantic keeps moving up both in market capitalization and revenue.
  • The first speech a prime minister delivers is heavily scrutinized and often long remembered.
  • Among Gerard’s goals was to forge international workers’ alliances to combat the corporate cabals that always got seats at the table to write the trade deals that worked against workers.
  • Officials say Leupold & Stevens Inc. personnel purchased the online products, confirmed the forgeries and notified authorities.
  • Participants in the workshop clearly rejected Iran’s vision and embraced a future of hope and prosperity.
  • Honnold is an eccentric and obsessive visionary, oblivious to the protocols and niceties of social interaction.
  • As the future of research is contemplated, similar visionary goals—with broad engagement—must be considered.
  • Stevens tended toward a case-by-case approach, avoided sweeping judicial philosophies, and stayed mindful of precedent.
  • The behavior may be explained by a precedent event in her troubled life.
  • Achieving the goals will be difficult as the central government takes precedence over the local government on U.S.-Japan alliance issues.
  • Japan’s internal debate over whether to rebuild its military into an offensive force long preceded Trump’s election.
  • Border and illegal crossings will then skyrocket beyond the already unprecedented levels.
  • Ross Perot’s main complaint was that promotions were based on seniority rather than merit.
  • We are constantly arguing over the workings of American meritocracy, in schools and then colleges and then jobs: How do we get past the old networks of privilege and prejudice and accurately evaluate people’s abilities?
  • Lofven was at the helm when Sweden took in a record number of migrants from the Middle East and Africa in 2015 on top of the hundreds of thousands admitted before.
  • The new president continued naming new flag officers and appointed even more military officials to helm agencies.
  • The basic premise is that of a foreign government secretly controlling a candidate and the presidential election process in order to insert their own agent into the role.
  • The revamped premises include swimming pools, gym area, entertainment space and a wide range of other facilities.
  • The Workforce Data Quality initiative aims to build and enhance data systems that collect information about workforce training programs and employment services.
  • At this moment, both the Taiwan and U.S. governments prefer to see this as one step further in enhancement of diplomatic relations.
  • India’s challenge is an echo of what developing economies around the world are facing as a widening trade war initiated by the United States depresses sentiment and investment.
  • “Independents were much more likely to echo the comments made by Republicans than those made by Democrats,” ABC notes.
  • Blackwood describes her platform as rooted in addressing climate change, overhauling Washington’s tax system and improving economic equity.
  • In addition to universal health coverage and an ambitious climate plan, Marianne Williamson espouses a Department of Peace and an overhaul of the criminal justice system that would involve releasing prisoners en masse.
  • Newsom signed the bill into law, which requires presidential and gubernatorial candidates to submit five years of tax returns at least three months before the state’s primary.
  • A Department for Transport spokesman said the Rail Review is «focused on reforms to put passengers at the heart of the railway and will consider all submissions closely».
  • The plans are in the final stages of approval, but the current government is expected to rubber stamp the project, officials in Islamabad say.
  • Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s ruling bloc secured a majority in the July 21 elections but fell short of the two-thirds threshold in the house needed to reach his long-cherished goal of amending the constitution.
  • Eliminating poverty, combating climate change and controlling health costs are hard tasks individually, let alone together.
  • As created during the Depression by a promoter named Leo Seltzer, roller derby was the first sport in which men and women competed on the same team, albeit on a separate-but-equal basis, alternating periods on the track.